What are the linux virtual consoles?
After the boot menu, linux boots and shows text the first console. In the 90s, the consoles were in text mode but nowadays they are in graphical mode. A linux virtual console is like a full screen terminal.
To access console 3, press: ctrl+alt+F3
On debian buster, ctrl+alt+F1 and F2 are the graphical user interface and the consoles are on ctrl+alt+F3 to F6.
w3m is terminal web browser able to display images on web pages in the consoles. A graphical alternative to w3m running in the framebuffer is netsurf, to learn how to install netsurf in debian buster follow the instructions in this post.
The consoles are able to display text, images and millions of colors.
Other keys for switching console:
- WIN + Arrow left/right: previous/next console
- ALT + Fn: Switch to console n
- WIN + Fn: Switch to console n
- SHIFT + Page up/Page Down: Scroll up or down
- ALT(GR) + Printscreen: Switch to last console
- CTRL + ALT + DEL: Reboot
- ALT + Printscreen + K: logout from console
- CTRL + .: Compose, in debian the configuration are in /etc/console-setup/*.inc
In tmux, pane resizing doesn't work unsing the keys CTRL + b + CTRL + ARROWS, use the tmux command prompt instead:
This command resizes current pane to the right by 10 columns
I open photos with
fbi and pdfs with fbgs:
For watching video in the linux console, I use mplayer with the framebuffer video output:
To change to the cursor to plain rectangle, run this command:
The mouse is handled with the gpm packages:
Sometimes gpm stops working, so I restart it with:
setvtrgb program to setup the console 16 color palette.
I create the file
linuxConsoleColor.txt which correspond to the tango color theme in gnome-terminal:
- Line 1: red components
- Line 2: green components
- Line 3: blue components
Then run the command:
For permanent changes, use
setupcon to change the values in
to enable screensaver after 10 minutes
Boot to console
Undo boot to console: